The LCC project set out to define:
1. the types of things that occupy the network, and their relationships: Rights Reference Model;
2. how to identify things in the network: Principles of Identification;
3. how the rights data passes through the network: Principles of Messaging;
Collectively these are referred to as “The LCC Framework”.
The LCC Framework takes a somewhat radical approach to the understanding of "rights" in terms of scope and data architecture, but it does so while making use of existing best practise in its methods; the result is reassuringly coherent. Rights administration will always involve complexity because the content, the uses to which it is put and the conditions which apply really are complex, and have become much more so in the digital age. The Framework, however, offers an integrated strategy which can be applied both "top down" and "bottom up", making use of existing schemas and infrastructure but describing ways of creating, aggregating and transforming complex, multimedia data to fill gaps in the network.
1. The LCC Rights Reference Model (RRM)
The LCC Rights Reference Model (RRM) (http://doi.org/10.1000/284) is a formal, general and extensible reference data model for representing intellectual property rights and entitlements for any media or content. The RRM identifies eight types of entity, their core attributes and the relationships between them. One very significant feature is the single Right entity, through which permissions and entitlements of all kinds (including ownership claims and permissions) may be expressed to any level of detail with their associated prohibitions and conditions. This provides a breadth and a simplicity to the model which other rights-based models typically lack.
The RRM has been created using a "building block" model, the LCC Entity Model (http://doi.org/10.1000/285), which gives a general structure for the attributes of any kind of Entity. The underlying Entity Model is what allows the RRM to be "specialised" to any level of detail and configured to meet the requirements of different domains within a single model by the addition of specialized vocabulary and rules. It also allows for other types of Entity to be added to the model if its scope is extended in future.
For convenience the RRM is also expressed as two UML (Unified Modelling Language) class models in an EAP (Enterprise Architect) file, and the UML class models are also published as JPG images.
1.1. RRM Use Cases
The RRM is one of a family of models and standards based on, or consistent with, the <indecs> Metadata Framework (2000), which includes the DDEX and ONIX message standards from the music and text publishing sectors. The RRM must, by definition, be semantically richer than any schema to be mapped into it.
The RRM has been validated by mapping a range of use cases into it, chosen to cover a wide range of types of rights data. This process of validation has been continued in a formal way within the RDI project.
1.2 The Common Rights Format (CRF)
The RRM is an abstract data model which can be expressed or implemented in many different syntactic forms (such as a relational database schema, an object model, an RDF or XML schema or a formal ontology) without changing its meaning. As an example, the Common Rights Format (CRF) is provided as an XML schema (XSD) which enables data to be expressed in XML in a way that complies with the RRM. Like many XSDs it is a set of several (in this case, three) dependent schemas which are available as a Technical Files download which includes the LCCCommonRightsFormat.xsd; the LCCEntityModel.xsd and the LCCAllowedValues.xsd together with a sample record showing Use Case R1 in an XML document compliant with the CRF.
The CRF in the form published here is not proposed as a general Rights message, rather it is more suitable to support a "hub" aggregation and transformation process. Specific schemas and messages for more specialised use, or to "plug gaps" in the network, could be created as profiles of the CRF.
2. The LCC Principles of Identification
With the RRM having defined the key eight kinds of entity which populate the network, the LCC Principles of Identification document (http://doi.org/10.1000/287) recommends the way in which these entities are best identified as a model of best practise for supporting the highest level of automation, trust and accuracy within the supply chain and network. This document was revised in April 2014 and is now structured as follows:
1. Entities (what should be identified?);
2. Structure (what form should an identifier take?);
3. Assignment (how should an identifier be issued?); and
4. Deployment (how should an identifier be used?).
This Principles of Identification document is supported by two Appendices:
Appendix 1, Identification in the digital content network, follows the structure of the LCC Principles of Identification document and elaborates the recommendations (http://doi.org/10.1000/288)
Appendix 2, Identifier implementations in the digital content network, provides an overview of the main current implementations of identifiers relevant to linked content.” (http://doi.org/10.1000/289)
The Principles of Identification document is also available including the two appendices (http://doi.org/10.1000/283).
3. The LCC Principles of Messaging
Data and identifiers pass through a data flow called in RRM the Rights Data Supply Chain. The LCC Principles of Messaging document (http://doi.org/10.1000/286) defines the three essential roles in this chain, and provides an analysis of the Information flows which move along it. The document describes the basic messaging architecture and generic Message requirements which may be used to specify message formats, message exchange protocols and choreographies.